Clinical, Viral and Genetic Characteristics of Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) in Shanghai, China
Xiaojin Wu, Fanping Yang, Shengan Chen, Hao Xiong, Qinyuan Zhu, Xudong Gao, Qinghe Xing, Xiaoqun Luo
DRESS is one of the most severe drug reactions. The aim of this retrospective study was to summarize the clinical presentation, genetic predisposition and prognostic factors of DRESS. A total of 52 patients with DRESS, who were inpatients at a medical referral centre in Shanghai, China, from January 2011 to December 2016, were analysed retrospectively. All the patients had skin eruption, 83% had liver involvement, and ≤10% had other organ involvement. Mean cost of hospitalization was US$5,511±3,050. The 3 most common causative agents were allopurinol (18/52; 35%), salazosulphapyridine (11/52; 21%) and carbamazepine (5/52; 10%). HLA-B*5801 and HLA-B*1302 were associated with allopurinol-induced DRESS. HLA-B*1301 was related to salazosulphapyridine-induced DRESS. The mortality rate was 6% (3/52). Epstein-Barr virus DNA was found in 10 patients (19%) and indicated a poor prognosis. Human herpes virus 6 DNA was detected in 17 patients (33%) and was associated with autoimmune sequelae. Due to its high medical cost and sometimes poor prognosis, prevention of DRESS should be a high priority.