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Review article

Music interventions and physical activity in older adults: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis

doi: 10.2340/16501977-1025

Open access

Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of music interventions in increasing physical activity in older adults.
METHODS: Searches until March 2011 were conducted through CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMED, AMED, PsychINFO, AUSPORT, PEDro, OTseeker, Expanded Academic
ASAP, SPORTDiscus, and The Cochrane Library. Selection criteria included older adults, music interventions, physical activity outcomes, and quantitative designs. Two reviewers independently screened records. Study details included objectives, designs, participants, music interventions, physical activity outcomes, and results. Risk of bias was assessed using the PEDro scale.
RESULTS: The review included 12 low to moderate quality studies with 309 participants. Three meta-analyses conducted for the review (4 trials and 99 participants) did not demonstrate any within-session differences in comparisons between music and no-music interventions. Two individual trials of moderate quality demonstrated increased capacity to perform physical activity following exercise programs with music over 4 and 8 weeks compared with no-music. There was no evidence that any particular music intervention was superior to another.
CONCLUSION: Evidence from a small number of low to moderate quality trials did not demonstrate within-session improvements for older adults who listen to music during exercise. However, there may be cumulative benefits following programs with music over several weeks.

Authors:

Imogen N. Clark, Nicholas F. Taylor, Felicity Baker
Music Therapy Department, Wantirna Health, 251 Mountain Highway, Wantirna, 3152 Victoria, Australia. E-mail: imogenclark@ozemail.com.au

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    Appendix I. Search example on MEDLINE

    Searches

    Results

    1

    Music/

    8,884

    2

    (music or music therapy or auditory stimulation or “patterned sensory enhancement” or therapeutic instrumental performance” or performing arts or singing).mp.

    15,484

    3

    Physical activity.mp. or Motor Activity/

    101,058

    4

    (physical activity or “habitual physical activity” or physical performance or physical fitness ot physical endur* or physical exertion or physical strength).mp.

    117,807

    5

    (motor activity or exercise or exercise tolerance or energy metabolism or energy expenditure or energy consumption).mp.

    333,197

    6

    (heart rate or oxygen consumption or respiratory rate or VO2 max or metabolic rate or aerobic capacity).mp.

    275,591

    7

    (sport or mobility).mp.

    114,307

    8

    1 or 2

    15,484

    9

    3 or 4 or 5 or 6 or 7

    704,189

    10

    8 and 9

    1,154

    11

    limit 10 to (humans and “45 plus years”)

    321

    mp: protocol supplementary concept, rare disease supplementary concept, title, original title, abstract, name of substance word, subject heading word, unique identifier.

    Appendix II. Quality checking using PEDro

    Reference

    PEDro Item Numbera

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9

    10

    11

    Total (/10)

    Bauldoff et al., 2002 (33)

    5

    Bauldoff et al., 2005 (34)

    6

    Bernard, 1992 (38)

    5

    Davin, 2005 (42)

    4

    Johnson et al., 2001 (39)

    3

    Kendelhardt, 2003 (44)

    3

    Lee, 2001 (43)

    2

    Mathews et al., 2001 (40)

    1

    O’Konski et al., 2010 (41)

    3

    Pfister et al., 1998 (35)

    5

    Thornby et al., 1995 (36)

    6

    von Leupoldt et al., 2007 (37)

    2

    aPEDro Items: 1. Eligibility criteria were specified. 2. Subjects were randomly allocated to groups. 3. Allocation was concealed. 4. The groups were similar at baseline regarding the most important prognostic indicators. 5. There was blinding of subjects. 6. There was blinding of all therapists who administered one key outcome. 7. There was blinding of all therapists who measured at least one key outcome. 8. Measures of at least one key outcome were obtained from more that 85% of the subjects initially allocated to groups. 9. All subjects for whom outcome measures were available received the treatment or control condition as allocated or, where this was not the case, data for at least one key outcome was analysed by “intention to treat”. 10. The results of between group statistical comparisons are reported for at least one key outcome. 11. The study provides both point measures and measure of variability for at least one key outcome. NB. Item 1 not included in total score.



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Volume 44, Issue 9

DOI: 10.2340/16501977-1025

Pages: 710-719

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