CD1c+ Blood Dendritic Cells in Atopic Dermatitis are Premature and Can Produce Disease-specific Chemokines
Anikó Kapitány, Gabriella Béke, Georgina Nagy, Quang Minh Doan-Xuan, Zsolt Bacso, Krisztián Gáspár, Gábor Boros, Zsolt Dajnoki, Tamás Bíró, Éva Rajnavölgyi, Andrea Szegedi
Skin dendritic cells of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are well characterized, but less is known about their peripheral blood precursors. The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic features and chemokine production of myeloid pre-dendritic cells of patients with AD ex vivo and after stimulation with Staphylococcus enterotoxin B and thymic stromal lymphopoietin, representing an AD-like microenvironment. The expression of cell surface markers was measured by flow cytometry, while chemokine production was monitored with chemokine antibody array and confirmed by enzyme-linked immunoassays. AD pre-dendritic cells expressed higher levels of Fc?RI and the maturation and activation markers tended to be altered. They produced both AD (CCL17/18/22) and maturation-related (CCL3/4/5) chemokines at higher level than controls. The production of CCL3/4 and CCL18 were significantly higher even without AD-specific stimulation, while the production of CCL17 and CCL22 were significantly higher only after stimulation. These results indicate that circulating AD pre-dendritic cells are premature and bear atopic characteristics even without tissue-specific stimulation, suggesting that their development is not only influenced by the skin microenvironment, but even earlier by the local milieu in the blood.