ContentList volumes - List articles in this issue
Six weeks’ aerobic retraining after two weeks’ immobilization restores leg lean mass and aerobic capacity but does not fully rehabilitate leg strenght in young and older men
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of aerobic retraining as rehabilitation after short-term leg immobilization on leg strength, leg work capacity, leg lean mass, leg muscle fibre type composition and leg capillary supply, in young and older men.
Subjects and design: Seventeen young (23 ± 1 years) and 15 older (68 ± 1 [standard error of the mean; SEM] years) men had one leg immobilized for 2 weeks, followed by 6 weeks’ bicycle endurance retraining.
METHODS: Maximal voluntary contraction, leg work capacity (Wmax), and leg lean mass by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured at inclusion, after immobilization and after 3 and 6 weeks’ retraining. Muscle biopsies were evaluated for fibre type, fibre area, and capillarization.
RESULTS: Immobilization decreased maximal voluntary contraction (–28 ± 6% and –23 ± 3%); Wmax (–13 ± 5% and –9 ± 4%) and leg lean mass (only in young, –485 ± 105g) in young and older men, respectively. Six weeks’ retraining increased maximal voluntary contraction (34 ± 8% and 17 ± 6%), Wmax (33 ± 5% and 20 ± 5%) and leg lean mass (only in young 669 ± 69 g) in young and older men, respectively, compared with the immobilized value.
CONCLUSION: Short-term leg immobilization had marked effects on leg strength, and work capacity and 6 weeks’ retraining was sufficient to increase, but not completely rehabilitate, muscle strength, and to rehabilitate aerobic work capacity and leg lean mass (in the young men).
Andreas Vigelsø , Martin Gram , Caroline Wiuff , Jesper L. Andersen, Jørn W. Helge, Flemming Dela
XLAB – Center for Healthy Aging, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Panum Institute, 12.4, Blegdamsvej 3b, DK-2200 N, Denmark. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
2. Lexell J, Taylor CC, Sjostrom M. What is the cause of the ageing atrophy? Total number, size and proportion of different fiber types studied in whole vastus lateralis muscle from 15- to 83-year-old men. J Neurol Sci 1988; 84: 275–294.
3. Ayabe M, Yahiro T, Yoshioka M, Higuchi H, Higaki Y, Tanaka H. Objectively measured age-related changes in the intensity distribution of daily physical activity in adults. J Phys Act Health 2009; 6: 419–425.
4. Kirkendall DT, Garrett WE, Jr. The effects of aging and training on skeletal muscle. Am J Sports Med 1998; 26: 598–602.
5. Deschenes MR, Holdren AN, McCoy RW. Adaptations to short-term muscle unloading in young and aged men. Med Sci Sports Exer 2008; 40: 856–863.
6. Kortebein P, Ferrando A, Lombeida J, Wolfe R, Evans WJ. Effect of 10 days of bed rest on skeletal muscle in healthy older adults. J Am Med Assoc 2007; 297: 1772–1774.
7. Suetta C, Frandsen U, Jensen L, Jensen MM, Jespersen JG, Hvid LG, et al. Aging affects the transcriptional regulation of human skeletal muscle disuse atrophy. PloS One 2012; 7: e51238.
8. Suetta C, Hvid LG, Justesen L, Christensen U, Neergaard K, Simonsen L, et al. Effects of aging on human skeletal muscle after immobilization and retraining. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2009; 107: 1172–1180.
9. Hvid LG, Suetta C, Aagaard P, Kjaer M, Frandsen U, Ortenblad N. Four days of muscle disuse impairs single fiber contractile function in young and old healthy men. Exp Gerontol 2013; 48: 154–161.
10. de Boer D, Ring C, Wood M, Ford C, Jessney N, McIntyre D, et al. Time course and mechanisms of mental stress-induced changes and their recovery: hematocrit, colloid osmotic pressure, whole blood viscosity, coagulation times, and hemodynamic activity. Psychophysiology 2007; 44: 639–649.
11. Hvid L, Aagaard P, Justesen L, Bayer ML, Andersen JL, Ortenblad N, et al. Effects of aging on muscle mechanical function and muscle fiber morphology during short-term immobilization and subsequent retraining. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2010; 109: 1628–1634.
12. Hortobágyi T, Dempsey L, Fraser D, Zheng D, Hamilton G, Lambert J, et al. Changes in muscle strength, muscle fibre size and myofibrillar gene expression after immobilization and retraining in humans. J Physiol 2000; 524: 293–304.
13. Yasuda N, Glover EI, Phillips SM, Isfort RJ, Tarnopolsky MA. Sex-based differences in skeletal muscle function and morphology with short-term limb immobilization. J Appl Physiol 2005; 99: 1085–1092.
14. Andersen JL. Muscle fibre type adaptation in the elderly human muscle. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2003; 13: 40–47.
15. Aniansson A, Hedberg M, Henning GB, Grimby G. Muscle morphology, enzymatic activity, and muscle strength in elderly men: a follow-up study. Muscle Nerve 1986; 9: 585–591.
16. Coggan AR, Spina RJ, King DS, Rogers MA, Brown M, Nemeth PM, et al. Skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance training in 60- to 70-yr-old men and women. J Appl Physiol 1992; 72: 1780–1786.
17. Hepple RT, Mackinnon SL, Goodman JM, Thomas SG, Plyley MJ. Resistance and aerobic training in older men: effects on VO2peak and the capillary supply to skeletal muscle. J Appli Physiol 1997; 82: 1305–1310.
18. Harber MP, Konopka AR, Undem MK, Hinkley JM, Minchev K, Kaminsky LA, et al. Aerobic exercise training induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and age-dependent adaptations in myofiber function in young and older men. J Appl Physiol (1985) 2012; 113: 1495–1504.
19. Andersen P, Henriksson J. Capillary supply of the quadriceps femoris muscle of man: adaptive response to exercise. J Physiol 1977; 270: 677–690.
20. Denis C, Chatard JC, Dormois D, Linossier MT, Geyssant A, Lacour JR. Effects of endurance training on capillary supply of human skeletal muscle on two age groups (20 and 60 years). J Physiol 1986; 81: 379–383.
21. Eriksen L, Gronbaek M, Helge JW, Tolstrup JS, Curtis T. The Danish Health Examination Survey 2007–2008 (DANHES 2007–2008). Scand J Public Health 2011; 39: 203–211.
22. Reihmane D, Hansen AV, Gram M, Kuhlman AB, Norregaard J, Pedersen HP, et al. Immobilization increases interleukin-6, but not tumour necrosis factor-alpha, release from the leg during exercise in humans. Exp Physiol 2013; 98: 778–783.
23. Gram M, Vigelso A, Yokota T, Hansen CN, Helge JW, Hey-Mogensen M, et al. Two weeks of one-leg immobilization decreases skeletal muscle respiratory capacity equally in young and elderly men. Exp Gerontol 2014; 58: 269–278.
24. Nørregaard J, Gram M, Vigelsø A, Wiuff C, Kuhlman AB, Helge JW, et al. The effect of reduced physical activity and retraining on blood lipids and body composition in young and older adult men. J Aging Phys Activity 2014 [Epub ahead of print].
25. Freedson PS, Melanson E, Sirard J. Calibration of the Computer Science and Applications, Inc. accelerometer. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30: 777–781.
26. Matthews CE, Chen KY, Freedson PS, Buchowski MS, Beech BM, Pate RR, et al. Amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in the United States, 2003–2004. Am J Epidemiol 2008; 167: 875–881.
27. Brooke MH, Kaiser KK. Muscle fiber types: how many and what kind? Arch Neurol 1970; 23: 369–379.
28. Qu Z, Andersen JL, Zhou S. Visualisation of capillaries in human skeletal muscle. Histochem Cell Biol 1997; 107: 169–174.
29. Larsen S, Danielsen JH, Sondergard SD, Sogaard D, Vigelsoe A, Dybboe R, et al. The effect of high-intensity training on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2015; 25: e59-e69.
30. Couppe C, Suetta C, Kongsgaard M, Justesen L, Hvid LG, Aagaard P, et al. The effects of immobilization on the mechanical properties of the patellar tendon in younger and older men. Clin Biomech 2012; 27: 949–954.
31. D’Antona G, Pellegrino MA, Adami R, Rossi R, Carlizzi CN, Canepari M, et al. The effect of ageing and immobilization on structure and function of human skeletal muscle fibres. J Physiol 2003; 552: 499–511.
32. Edgerton VR, Zhou MY, Ohira Y, Klitgaard H, Jiang B, Bell G, et al. Human fiber size and enzymatic properties after 5 and 11 days of spaceflight. J Appl Physiol 1995; 78: 1733–1739.
33. Caiozzo VJ, Haddad F, Baker MJ, Baldwin KM. Influence of mechanical loading on myosin heavy-chain protein and mRNA isoform expression. J Appl Physiol 1996; 80: 1503–1512.
34. Andersen JL, Aagaard P. Myosin heavy chain IIX overshoot in human skeletal muscle. Muscle Nerve 2000; 23: 1095–1104.
35. Ryan NA, Zwetsloot KA, Westerkamp LM, Hickner RC, Pofahl WE, Gavin TP. Lower skeletal muscle capillarization and VEGF expression in aged vs. young men. J Appl Physiol 2006; 100: 178–185.
36. Gavin TP, Ruster RS, Carrithers JA, Zwetsloot KA, Kraus RM, Evans CA, et al. No difference in the skeletal muscle angiogenic response to aerobic exercise training between young and aged men. J Physiol 2007; 585: 231–239.
37. Hoier B, Nordsborg N, Andersen S, Jensen L, Nybo L, Bangsbo J, et al. Pro- and anti-angiogenic factors in human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise and training. J Physiol 2012; 590: 595–606.
38. Gustafsson T, Rundqvist H, Norrbom J, Rullman E, Jansson E, Sundberg CJ. The influence of physical training on the angiopoietin and VEGF-A systems in human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 2007; 103: 1012–1020.
39. Olenich SA, Gutierrez-Reed N, Audet GN, Olfert IM. Temporal response of positive and negative regulators in response to acute and chronic exercise training in mice. J Physiol 2013; 591: 5157–5169.
View at PubMed