Content » Preview

Investigative Report

Risk Factors for Penile Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Population-based Register Study in Sweden, 2000-2012

Sinja Kristiansen, Åke Svensson, Linda Drevin, Ola Forslund, Christian Torbrand, Carina Bjartling
DOI: 10.2340/00015555-3083

Preview of fully accepted paper, still not published in any volume


Studies on risk factors for penile intraepithelial neo­plasia have been small in size, have not distinguished penile intraepithelial neoplasia from invasive cancer, and have relied on self-reported information. This study investigated risk factors for penile intraepithelial neoplasia in a cohort of 580 penile intraepithelial neoplasia cases and 3,436 controls using information from 7 Swedish registers. Cases with penile intraepithelial neoplasia had increased odds ratios (ORs) for inflammatory skin diseases (14.7, 95% CI 6.5–33.4) including lichen planus (12.0, 95% CI 3.0–48.0), indicating lichen planus to be an important risk factor. Increased ORs were also observed for diseases of the prepuce (4.0, 95% CI 2.2–7.4), immunosuppressive drugs (5.0, 95% CI 2.5–9.8), penile surgical procedures (4.8, 95% CI 2.2–10.8), balanitis (9.2, 95% CI 5.0–16.8), genital warts (9.9, 95% CI 4.3−22.7) and organ transplantation (7.0, 95% CI 2.4–20.8). This study demonstrates important risk factors for penile intraepithelial neoplasia, providing knowledge that can help prevent the development of penile cancer.

Supplementary content


Not logged in! You need to login/create an account to comment on articles. Click here to login/create an account.