Effect of Pregnancy and Menopause on Facial Wrinkling in Women
Choon Shik Youn A2, Oh Sang Kwon A2, Chong Hyun Won A2, Eun Ju Hwang A2, Byung Joo Park A3, Hee Chul Eun A2, Jin Ho Chung A2
Women appear to be at greater risk of developing wrinkles with age than men. To evaluate the effect of pregnancy and menopause on facial wrinkling, a total of 186 Korean women volunteers aged between 20 and 89 years were interviewed for information on menstrual and reproductive factors. An 8-point photographic scale developed for assessing the severity of wrinkles in Asian skin was used. Cumulative sun exposure, both occupational and recreational, was estimated. In Korean women, the risk of facial wrinkling increases significantly with increasing number of full-term pregnancies (OR=1.835, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.017-3.314) and menopausal age (number of years since menopause) (OR=3.909, 95% CI 1.071-14.275), while hormone replacement therapy is associated with a significantly lower risk for the development of facial wrinkling in postmenopausal women (OR=0.221, 95% CI 0.047-0.949). Hypo-oestrogenism may play a part in the decrease of skin collagen leading to skin wrinkling in postmenopausal women.