Effects of Pretreatment with a Urea-containing Emollient on Nickel Allergic Skin Reactions
Natalia Kuzmina , Miruna Nyrén , Marie Lodén , Fredrik Edlund , Lennart Emtestam
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a moisturizer containing urea on allergic contact dermatitis. Twenty-five nickel-sensitized patients and five controls (non-sensitized volunteers) applied such a moisturizer on the volar side of one forearm twice daily for 20 days, while the other forearm served as the control. After treatment with the moisturizer, patch tests with 0%, 0.5% and 2% NiSO4 in petrolatum were applied in a randomized manner on each arm. After 72 h, the skin reactions were blindly evaluated by clinical scoring and by measuring transepidermal water loss and electrical impedance. After treatment, the baseline transepidermal water loss values were lower and the baseline magnitude impedance index values were higher on the pretreated forearm. According to clinical scoring and measurements with the two physical measurement techniques, the degree of the patch test reactions was equal. All control subjects had negative nickel tests. We concluded that the skin reactivity to nickel in nickel-sensitized patients is not significantly affected by use of the urea-containing moisturizer.