Cyclosporin A down-regulates the LTA4 hydrolase level in human keratinocyte cultures.
Iversen L, Svendsen M, Kragballe K
Leukotriene A4 hydrolase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of leukotriene B4, a potent pro-inflammatory compound. The purpose of this study was to determine the capacity of antiinflammatory and anti-proliferative compounds to regulate the levels and activity of leukotriene A4 hydrolase in cultured human keratinocytes. The content of leukotriene A4 hydrolase was determined by Western blot analysis, and the activity of leukotriene A4 hydrolase was expressed as the leukotriene B4 formation after incubation of keratinocyte cultures with leukotriene A4. Leukotriene B4 was measured by revered-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Preincubation for 10 min of the cultured keratinocytes with the leukotriene A4 hydrolase inhibitor RP 64699 (0.1-10 microM) caused a significant dose-dependent inhibition of leukotriene B4 formation (IC50 = 0.7 microM). Cyclosporin A (0.1 micrograms/ml and 1.0 micrograms/ml) had no direct effect on leukotriene A4 hydrolase activity, but after incubation for 72 h there was a decrease in the mean leukotriene B4 formation per culture dish (35% and 48%, respectively). The decreased leukotriene B4 formation was caused mainly by a decrease in the mean leukotriene A4 hydrolase content per mg protein (30.1% at 0.1 micrograms/ml cyclosporin A and 40.0% at 1.0 micrograms/ml cyclosporin A), although keratinocyte proliferation was also slightly decreased. Incubations with 1.25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (10(-7)-10(-10) M), all-trans retinoic acid (10(-6)-10(-10) M), eicosartienoic acid (10(-6)-10(-8) M), dexamethasone (10(-5)-10(-7) M), interferon-gamma (10 and 100 units/ml) or methotrexate (0.1-10 micrograms/ml) had no effect on either the leukotriene B4 formation or the amount of leukotriene A4 hydrolase in keratinocyte cultures. These results show that cyclosporin A, in contrast to other anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative compounds, inhibits the level of leukotriene A4 hydrolase in keratinocyte cultures. Since similar cyclosporin A concentrations are obtained during treatment of psoriasis with cyclosporin A, the effect on leukotriene A4 hydrolase may play a role in the anti-inflammatory action of cyclosporin A.