Content - Volume 72, Issue 176

All articles

Secular change in the occurrence of atopic dermatitis
F Schultz Larsen, J M Hanifin
Atopic dermatitis is a common disease, and population-based studies indicate that the frequency of atopic dermatitis has increased substantially during recent decades. It has been generally accepted that disease onset occurs before 7 years of age in 80-90% of the cases, and consequently the epidemiology of atopic dermatitis has been studied mostly in children on admission of first grade school. Be ...
Pages: 7-12
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Recent epidemiological and genetic studies in atopic dermatitis
T L Diepgen, M Fartasch
In a prospective computerized study, basic and minor features of atopic dermatitis were studied systematically in established cases of atopic dermatitis (AD; n = 428) and compared with subjects randomly collected from the caucasian normal population of young adults (NP; n = 659). Complete genetic data (history of AD, allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma) were obtained from the first-degree relatives ...
Pages: 13-18
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Re-evaluation of skin lesion distribution in atopic dermatitis. Analysis of cases 0 to 9 years of age
T Aoki, T Fukuzumi, J Adachi, K Endo, M Kojima
Distribution of skin lesions was studied in 1,012 patients under 10 years of age, with atopic dermatitis. Of these, 812 (80.2%) had an atopic history; 200 did not. Both categories were divided by age into five subgroups (3-5 months, 6-11 months, 1 year, 2-4 years and 5-9 years) and the incidence of lesions in each of 52 skin regions was compared between the positive and negative history groups and ...
Pages: 19-23
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Factors influencing the localization of atopic dermatitis
E Bonifazi
Atopic dermatitis is clinically characterized by the involvement of preferential sites. Some of these localizations, such as the face in the first year of life and later on the flexural aspect of the limbs, are constant and thus characteristic of atopic dermatitis. They are probably determined by factors that are identical for all subjects, whereas the less constant localizations are probably infl ...
Pages: 24-25
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The barrier function in atopic dry skin. Disturbance of membrane-coating granule exocytosis and formation of epidermal lipids?
Fartasch M, Diepgen TL.
Non-eczematous atopic dry skin (DS) shows an enhanced transepidermal water loss denoting an impaired water permeability barrier (WPB) function. The WPB is formed by intercellular lipid lamellae located between the horny cells of stratum corneum (SC). The lipids are provided via the exocytosis of membrane-coating granules (MCG). By differentiating two dynamic states of MCG, the ultrastructural morp ...
Pages: 26-31
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ADASI score: atopic dermatitis area and severity index
F A Bahmer
The scoring system for atopic dermatitis presented is based on determination by point counting of involved body areas. On body diagrams, involved areas are colour-coded according to the severity of the skin changes and evaluated by applying a transparent grid. To obtain the ADASI score, the area fractions are weighted and multiplied by the intensity of the itching. The scoring values obtained are ...
Pages: 32-33
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The immunopathogenic role of food hypersensitivity in atopic dermatitis
H A Sampson
Food hypersensitivity is reported to play an immunopathogenic role in atopic dermatitis in approximately one-third of children. In 320 selected children with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis, 63% of children were found to have food hypersensitivity by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges. Both IgE-mediated mast cell and mononuclear cell activation appear responsible for the eczemato ...
Pages: 34-37
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Type I allergy to foods in atopic dermatitis. Comparison between RAST-positive and RAST-negative cases
M Uehara, C Kimura, T Uenishi
Radioallergosorbent tests (RASTs) with five common foods were performed in 183 patients with atopic dermatitis. The results showed that about half of the patients had type I allergy to at least one of the five foodstuffs. The RAST results correlated roughly to the severity of dermatitis. In each group of patients with mild, moderate and severe atopic dermatitis, positive RAST reactions to common f ...
Pages: 38-40
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Food immediate-contact hypersensitivity (FICH) and elimination diet in young children with atopic dermatitis. Preliminary results in 107 children
A P Oranje, R S Aarsen, P G Mulder, A W van Toorenenbergen, G Liefaard, P H Dieges
In atopic dermatitis [AD], not only food consumption, but direct skin-contact too can provoke hypersensitivity reactions. We imitated food immediate-contact hypersensitivity [FICH] to cow's milk, egg, peanut or soy by a skin provocation test. This skin application food test [SAFT] was applied in 91 patients aged up to 5 years and suffering from AD, and in 16 healthy controls (all SAFT-negative). I ...
Pages: 41-44
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Study of immune-responsiveness to wheat antigen by IgG, IgA, and IgE immunoblotting with sera from patients with atopic dermatitis
S Yokota, K Tsubaki, H Shimizu, S Matsuyama, K Takahashi, Z Ikezawa
To investigate the immune mechanism underlying the IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to food antigens, wheat-flour proteins were extracted in mild condition, and IgG antibodies were detected by the ELISA method. Atopic dermatitis patients who had high scores for IgE-RAST were shown to have increased levels of IgG antibodies to wheat proteins. To define the allergenic polypeptides or epitopes in wheat ...
Pages: 45-48
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Lymphocyte transformation test for house dust mite in atopic dermatitis: relationship between mite antigens for type I and type IV allergy
K Sasaki, H Sugiura, M Uehara
Using a crude extract obtained from Dermatophagoides farinae, and its four fractions (I, II, III and IV) partially purified by high-speed gel filtration chromatography, scratch tests and lymphocyte transformation tests (LTTs) were performed on 37 patients with atopic dermatitis. Crude mite antigen provoked positive scratch test reactions in 25 (68%), and positive LTT reactions in 19 (51%) of the 3 ...
Pages: 49-53
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IgE-binding molecules on human Langerhans cells
T Bieber
We have recently demonstrated that normal human Langerhans cells are able to bind IgE. The study of IgE-binding molecules on normal LC led to the characterization of three distinct structures able to bind IgE, viz. the low affinity receptor for IgE, Fc epsilon R2/CD23, the so-called IgE-binding protein epsilon BP which is the human homologous of the murine Mac-2 antigen, and finally the high affin ...
Pages: 54-57
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The pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis
M Takigawa, T Sakamoto, F Nakayama, T Tamamori
No abstract available.
Pages: 58-61
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Positive antinuclear antibody in atopic dermatitis
Y Taniguchi, A Yamakami, T Sakamoto, Y Nakamura, H Okada, H Tanaka, H Mizutani, M Shimizu
Serum samples from atopic dermatitis (AD) patients were examined with two antinuclear antibody-detecting methods, using HEp-2 cells as substrate. 34.0% of 47 AD patients tested with FITC-conjugated polyvalent immunoglobulins (method 1) had positive antinuclear antibody (ANA). 26.3% of 57 AD patients examined with FITC-conjugated anti-IgG (method 2) had positive ANA. We found that AD patients who h ...
Pages: 62-64
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Study of circulating immune complexes in atopic dermatitis
I Schneider, E Telegdy, F Liszt
The authors examined sera from 92 patients (78 adults, 14 children) with atopic dermatitis (AD), for the presence of circulating immune complexes (CIC). Using the PEG precipitation technique they found an increase in CIC total protein. In the quantity of precipitated proteins, elevated IgA and IgG levels and decreased C3 in CIC were measured. Neither the acute nor the subacute stage of the disease ...
Pages: 65-67
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The relationship between allergy, clinical symptoms and bronchial responsiveness in atopic dermatitis
G Fabrizi, G M Corbo, E Ferrante, B Macciocchi, V De Angelis, A Romano, N Agabiti, E G De Vicuna, P Vultaggio, E Angelini, et al.
Atopic Dermatitis (AD) and asthma are closely associated with respect to epidemiology, hereditary factors and occurrence in the same individuals. Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness (BH), the hallmark of asthma, can also be a physiopathological feature of AD, even in the absence of clinical asthma. We studied 78 subjects with AD. A follow-up study was performed in 27 of these. Data on respiratory and de ...
Pages: 68-73
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Mast cell invasion of peripheral nerve in skin lesions of atopic dermatitis
H Sugiura, T Maeda, M Uehara
To ascertain whether or not a spatial relationship between mast cells and peripheral nerves is present in skin lesions of atopic dermatitis, 10 biopsy specimens of the skin lesions were examined with both semi-thin and ultrathin serial sections. Mast cell invasion of peripheral nerves was observed in 9 out of the 10 biopsy specimens (4 subacute lesions, 3 lichenified lesions, and 3 prurigo lesions ...
Pages: 74-76
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Are disturbances of omega-6-fatty acid metabolism involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis?
B Melnik, G Plewig
Recent evidence indicates that the primary defect in atopic dermatitis (AD) might concern the maturation and differentiation of T cells which infiltrate the skin or are unable to control T cell infiltration of the skin. Unfortunately, there is no information on thymus hormones, T cell differentiation factors or cytokines during early T cell maturation in atopic infants. One of these factors at fau ...
Pages: 77-85
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Abnormalities of cutaneous microcirculation in atopic eczematics
O P Hornstein, J Keller, F Boissevain
There are signs of abnormal microcirculation in atopics, yet reliable methods for its non-invasive measurement are scarce so far. Since the phenomenon of dermographism (D) elicited by blunt stroking of the skin reflects the functional response of cutaneous vessels to pressure, we studied the haemodynamics of D using laser-Doppler microfluxometry (LDF) and infrared thermography (IR-TH) in patients ...
Pages: 86-89
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Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and substance P in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis
A Giannetti, F Fantini, A Cimitan, C Pincelli
Neurogenic components are probably involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) and several neuropeptides have been implicated in the mechanisms underlying this disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate by radio-immunoassay (RIA), the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and substance P (SP) content in whole-skin homogenates of AD lesions. RIA was performed using an antise ...
Pages: 90-92
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Abnormal cutaneous neurosensitivity in atopic skin
G Heyer
Having found an inability of patients with atopic eczema to distinguish different levels of iontophoretically applied histamine concentrations, as shown by their diminished vascular reactions and itch responses, and reviewing this result in the light of our new findings of smaller flare reactions and weaker itch sensations following different concentrations of intradermally injected substance P, w ...
Pages: 93-94
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Allergic contact dermatitis in atopic dermatitis.
Lever R, Forsyth A.
Of 73 adult patients attending a clinic specially provided to treat patients with atopic dermatitis, 31 (42%) showed one or more positive patch reaction on contact testing. There was a striking female preponderance in the patch test positive group (26F:5M) in contrast to those with negative test results (9F:17M). The commonest allergens identified were fragrances in 13 patients, nickel (7), rubber ...
Pages: 95-98
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Effect of short-term egg exclusion diet on infantile atopic dermatitis and its relation to egg allergy: a single-blind test
T Aoki, M Kojima, J Adachi, M Okano
A unique, single-blind, controlled trial of egg exclusion was performed in infants under 3 years of age, with atopic dermatitis, and/or their breast-feeding mothers. All subjects were put on an exclusion diet, but assessment of the effect of egg exclusion was made without knowing the results of allergy the tests. Results showed that there was a statistically significant correlation between the eff ...
Pages: 99-102
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A probable involvement of rice allergy in severe type of atopic dermatitis in Japan
Z Ikezawa, K Miyakawa, H Komatsu, C Suga, J Miyakawa, A Sugiyama, T Sasaki, H Nakajima, Y Hirai, Y Suzuki
1006 patients with typical and atypical lesions of atopic dermatitis (AD) were analysed statistically. The clinical severity was closely correlated to serum IgE values and RAST (radio-allergosorbent test) positivity. The frequency of RAST-positive antigens was significantly correlated with serum IgE values (gamma = 0.712; p < 0.01). The analysis of multiple correlation between the clinical severit ...
Pages: 103-107
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Mass trial of hypoallergenic rice (HRS-1) produced by enzymatic digestion in atopic dermatitis with suspected rice allergy. HRS-1 Research Group
Z Ikezawa, T Ikebe, H Ogura, H Odajima, F Kurosaka, H Komatu, K Sase, C Suga, M Sugiuchi, H Suguro
The clinical usefulness of a hypoallergenic rice (HRS-1) which was produced by enzymatic decomposition of the constituent proteins of original rice was evaluated in a multicentre study in 44 subjects with recalcitrant atopic dermatitis (AD), who were suspected of having rice allergy. The subjects were fed for at least 4 weeks with HRS-1 instead of eliminating both regular rice and wheat from their ...
Pages: 108-112
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Extreme dietary measures in the management of atopic dermatitis in childhood
T J David
Of 63 children with severe atopic dermatitis who were treated with a diet eliminating all but 6 foods for a 6-week period, 9 (14%) abandoned the diet, 21 (33%) completed the diet but did not benefit, and in 33 (52%) there was significant benefit. However, the outcome at 12 months was the same regardless of the response to the diet because of the tendency for dermatitis to markedly improve in all t ...
Pages: 113-116
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Management of severe atopic dermatitis
Y de Prost
The lack of knowledge concerning the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) explains the absence of any specific treatment specially in severe atopic dermatitis. New treatments were recently suggested for the management of the disease. They all act on some component of the immune mechanisms which provoke the eczematous reactions. Among recent treatments proposed, I will discuss the use of cyclo ...
Pages: 117-119
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High-dose-UVA1 phototherapy: a novel and highly effective approach for the treatment of acute exacerbation of atopic dermatitis
J Krutmann, E Schöpf
High-Dose-UVA1 irradiation has recently been found to be a new, prompt-acting and highly effective phototherapeutic approach to the treatment of patients with acute exacerbation of atopic dermatitis. This therapeutic efficacy was demonstrated by a marked improvement of clinical symptoms as well as of laboratory parameters, which were found to reflect disease activity in atopic dermatitis. Investig ...
Pages: 120-122
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The treatment of difficult atopic dermatitis in childhood with oral beclomethasone dipropionate
S E Aylett, D J Atherton, M A Preece
Beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) is a synthetic glucocorticoid with great topical potency. It has previously been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for childhood atopic dermatitis (AD) when given orally. We have monitored linear growth and adrenal function in a group of children treated with oral BDP for severe AD. Stable control of disease was achieved in 10/14 patients (mean dose: 1000 ...
Pages: 123-125
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Successful treatment of therapy-resistant atopic dermatitis with clobetasol propionate and a hydrocolloid occlusive dressing
Volden G
During recent years, 48 patients with therapy-resistant chronic skin lesions of atopic dermatitis have been treated once a week with clobetasol propionate lotion left under Duoderm occlusive patches. They had previously failed to respond, or responded only sparsely, to topical corticosteroids. The lesions resolved completely in 44 patients, while partial remission was observed in the remaining 4. ...
Pages: 126-128
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Allergen-antibody complexes in the treatment of atopic dermatitis: preliminary results of a double-blind placebo-controlled study
B P Leroy, G Boden, M G Jacquemin, J M Lachapelle, J M Saint-Remy
Twenty-three adult patients suffering from chronic atopic dermatitis (AD) have been treated by regular injections of complexes made of D. pteronyssinus allergens and specific autologous antibodies. A double-blind placebo-controlled protocol was followed for 4 months, then the patients were treated openly to complete a full year on active therapy. Preliminary results are presented for the first 8 m ...
Pages: 129-131
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Comparative effects of two topical antiseptics (chlorhexidine vs KMn04) on bacterial skin flora in atopic dermatitis
J F Stalder, M Fleury, M Sourisse, T Allavoine, C Chalamet, P Brosset, P Litoux
In order to determine the efficacy and tolerance of two topical antiseptics, chlorhexidine vs KMn04 (diluted at 1:20,000), we compared their bacteriological and clinical effects in a randomized trial on 20 children with Atopic Dermatitis (AD) treated with topical steroids (desonide). After treatment, a clinical improvement was noted in the two groups, though without statistical differences. In viv ...
Pages: 132-134
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