Quantification of reaction forces during sitting pivot transfers performed by individuals with spinal cord injury
Dany Gagnon, Sylvie Nadeau, Luc Noreau, Patrick Dehail, Denis Gravel
Objectives: To quantify the reaction forces exerted under the hands, feet and buttocks when individuals with spinal cord injury performed sitting pivot transfers.
Design: Twelve men with paraplegia completed 3 transfers between seats of the same height (0. 5 m high) and 3 transfers to a high target seat (0. 6 m high).
Results: Greater mean and peak vertical reaction forces were always recorded under the hands compared with the feet (p<0. 001) during the transfers. Mean vertical reaction forces were similar between the leading and trailing hands (p>0. 088) for the 2 transfers studied. However, the mean vertical reaction force underneath the leading hand was greater when transferring between a seat of the same height compared with one of a higher height (p=0. 021) and vice-versa for the trailing hand (p=0. 0001). The peak vertical reaction force always occurred earlier (p<0. 0001) and was greater underneath the trailing hand compared with the leading one (p<0. 02), and reached its highest value when transferring to the high target seat (p=0. 003). Peak and mean horizontal reaction forces were always higher underneath the trailing hand compared with the leading hand (p<0. 001).
Conclusion: These results provide evidence-based data to better understand transfers and strengthen clinical practice guidelines targeting the preservation of upper extremity integrity.
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