Reference style

References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in text by Arabic numerals in parenthesis as follows: "as shown by Smith (5)"; if two authors; "Smith & Jones (6)"; if more than two authors; "Smith et al. (7)". The style of references must follow the Vancouver system and for the abbreviations of journal titles; please consult the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus, published annually as a list in the January issue of Index Medicus, also accessible at www.nlm.nih.gov).

Articles in Journals

  1. Standard journal article (If a journal carries continuous pagination throughout a volume (as many medical journals do) the month and issue number should be omitted.)
    Up to six authors:
    Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 284–287.
    More than 6 authors:
    Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res 2002; 935: 40–46.
  2. Organization as author
    Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group. Hypertension, insulin, and proinsulin in participants with impaired glucose tolerance. Hypertension 2002; 40: 679-686.
  3. No author given
    21st century heart solution may have a sting in the tail. BMJ 2002; 325: 184.
  4. Article not in English
    A translation of the title into English in square brackets, and add a language designator.) Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. Sykdomsangst blant medisin- og jusstudenter. [Disease anxiety among medical students.] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2002; 122: 785–787 (in Norwegian).
  5. Volume with supplement
    Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache 2002; 42 Suppl 2: S93–S99.
  6. Issue with no volume
    Banit DM, Kaufer H, Hartford JM. Intraoperative frozen section analysis in revision total joint arthroplasty. Clin Orthop 2002; (401): 230–238.
  7. No volume or issue
    Outreach: bringing HIV-positive individuals into care. HRSA Careaction 2002 Jun:1–6.
  8. Type of article indicated as needed
    Tor M, Turker H. International approaches to the prescription of long-term oxygen therapy [letter]. Eur Respir J 2002; 20: 242.
  9. Article containing retraction
    Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. Safety and tolerability of a rapidly escalating dose-loading regimen for risperidone. J Clin Psychiatry 2002; 63:169. Retraction of: Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. J Clin Psychiatry 2000; 61: 909–911.
  10. Article retracted
    Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. Safety and tolerability of a rapidly escalating dose-loading regimen for risperidone. J Clin Psychiatry 2000; 61: 909-911. Retraction in: Feifel D, Moutier CY, Perry W. J Clin Psychiatry 2002; 63: 169.
  11. Article republished with corrections
    Mansharamani M, Chilton BS. The reproductive importance of P-type ATPases. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2002; 188: 22–25. Corrected and republished from: Mol Cell Endocrinol 2001; 183: 123–126.
  12. Article with published erratum
    Malinowski JM, Bolesta S. Rosiglitazone in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a critical review. Clin Ther 2000; 22:1151–1168; discussion 1149-50. Erratum in: Clin Ther 2001; 23: 309.
  13. Article published electronically ahead of the print version
    Yu WM, Hawley TS, Hawley RG, Qu CK. Immortalization of yolk sac-derived precursor cells. Blood 2002 Dec 2 [Epub ahead of print].

Books and Other Monographs

  1. Personal author(s)
    Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.
  2. Editor(s), compiler(s) as author
    Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.
  3. Organization(s) as author
    Royal Adelaide Hospital; University of Adelaide, Department of Clinical Nursing. Compendium of nursing research and practice development, 1999–2000. Adelaide (Australia): Adelaide University; 2001.
  4. Chapter in a book
    Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002, p. 93-113.
  5. Conference proceedings
    Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001, Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.
  6. Conference paper
    Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002, p. 182-91.
  7. Scientific or technical report
    Issued by funding/sponsoring agency:
    Yen GG (Oklahoma State University, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Stillwater, OK). Health monitoring on vibration signatures. Final report. Arlington (VA): Air Force Office of Scientific Research (US), Air Force Research Laboratory; 2002 Feb. Report No.: AFRLSRBLTR020123. Contract No.: F496209810049. Issued by performing agency: Russell ML, Goth-Goldstein R, Apte MG, Fisk WJ. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne Rhinovirus. Berkeley (CA): Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Environmental Energy Technologies Division; 2002 Jan. Report No.: LBNL49574. Contract No.: DEAC0376SF00098. Sponsored by the Department of Energy.
  8. Dissertation
    Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University; 2002.
  9. Patent
    Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent US 20020103498. 2002 Aug 1.
  10. Dictionary and similar references
    Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 29th ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 2000. Filamin; p. 675.

Unpublished Material

  1. In press
    Tian D, Araki H, Stahl E, Bergelson J, Kreitman M. Signature of balancing selection in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. In press 2002.

Electronic Material

  1. CD-ROM
    Anderson SC, Poulsen KB. Anderson's electronic atlas of hematology [CD-ROM]. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002.
  2. Journal article on the Internet
    Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [serial on the Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.nursingworld.org/AJN/2002/june/Wawatch.htm.
  3. Monograph on the Internet
    Foley KM, Gelband H, editors. Improving palliative care for cancer [monograph on the Internet]. Washington: National Academy Press; 2001 [cited 2002 Jul 9]. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309074029/html/.
  4. Web page
    Atherton, J. Behaviour modification [Internet]. 2010 [updated 2010 Feb 10; cited 2010 Apr 10]. Available from:
    http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/behaviour_mod.htm.
  5. Web page – no author
    The family impact of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) [Internet] 2009 Nov 1 [updated 2010 Jan 1; cited 2010 Apr 8]. Available from: http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com.au/healthandlifestyle.asp?sid=192&title=The-Family-Impact-of-Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder-%28ADHD%29&page=2.
  6. Web page – no date
    McCook A. Pre-diabetic condition linked to memory loss [Internet]. 2010 [cited 2010 Apr 14]. Available from: http://preventdisease.com/news /articles/pre-diabetic_memory_loss.shtml.
  7. Web page – corporate author
    Queensland Health. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (Human Swine Influenza) [Internet]. 2010 [updated 2010 Feb 19; cited 2010 Apr 7]. Available from: http://www.health.qld.gov.au/swineflu/.
  8. Open database on the Internet
    Who’s Certified [database on the Internet]. Evanston (IL): The American Board of Medical Specialists. c2000 - [cited 2001 Mar 8]. Available from: http://www.abms.org/newsearch.asp.
  9. Closed database on the Internet
    Jablonski S. Online Multiple Congential Anomaly/Mental Retardation (MCA/MR) Syndromes [database on the Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). c1999 [updated 2001 Nov 20; cited 2002 Aug 12]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/jablonski/syndrome_title.html.
  10. Part of a database on the Internet:
    MeSH Browser [database on the Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2002 - [cited 2003 Jun 10]. Meta-analysis; unique ID: D015201; [about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html. Files updated weekly.