List volumes - List articles in this issue

Clinical Report

Survey of Diagnostic Services for Genital Herpes in Fourteen Countries in Eastern Europe

doi: 10.2340/00015555-1033


This paper reports survey-based data on the diagnosis and management of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in 14 countries of the Eastern European Network for Sexual and Reproductive Health (EE SRH). Only 43% of the countries could provide the number of genital HSV cases recorded at national level. Eighty-six percent of countries employed syndromic management in cases of genital ulcer disease. Most countries performed type-specific and/or non-type-specific enzyme immunoassays to detect HSV antibodies. Non-type-specific
serology for diagnostic purposes should be actively discouraged. Direct detection methods for HSV, such as PCR, antigen detection and culture, are available in the region, but their usage was extremely low. Their use in Eastern European countries should be actively promoted. The availability of laboratory services must be improved, and countries in the region should implement consensus recommendations for the laboratory diagnosis of genital HSV infections in order to improve clinical practice.


Marius Domeika, Karen Babayan, Rashad Ismailov, Iryna Shimanskaya, Krasimira Chudomirova, Tatjana Brilene, Oleg Kvlividze, Judith Deak, Gulsum Askarova, Galina Mamajeva, Vesta Kucinskiene, Natalia Frigo, Alevtina Savicheva, Tatiana Krasnoselskich, Gennadiy Mavrov, Olim Kasymov, Olga Izvekova, Magnus Unemo, Ronald Campbell Ballard


  • Domeika M, Savicheva A, Sokolovskiy E, Ballard R, Unemo M; Eastern European Network for Sexual and Reproductive Health (EE SRH Network). Quality enhancements and quality assurance of laboratory diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections in Eastern Europe. Int J STD AIDS 2009; 20: 365–367.
  • Chapel TA, Jeffries CD, Brown WJ. Simultaneous infection with Treponema pallidum and herpes simplex virus. Cutis 1979; 24: 191–192.
  • Corey L, Holmes KK. Genital herpes simplex virus infections: current concepts in diagnosis, therapy, and prevention. Ann Intern Med 1983; 98: 973–983.
  • Corey L, Wald A. Genital herpes. In: Holmes KK, Sparling PF, Stamm WE, Piot P, Wasserheit JN, Corey L, et al., editors. Sexually transmitted diseases, 4th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2008, p. 399–438.
  • Brown ZA, Selke S, Zeh J, Kopelman J, Maslow A, Ashley RL, et al. The acquisition of herpes simplex virus during pregnancy. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 509–515.
  • Bruisten SM, Cairo I, Fennema H, Pijl A, Buimer M, Peerbooms PG, et al. Diagnosing genital ulcer disease in a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. J Clin Microbiol 2001; 39: 601–605.
  • Moodley P, Sturm PD, Vanmali T, Wilkinson D, Connolly C, Sturm AW. Association between HIV-1 infection, the etiology of genital ulcer disease, and response to syndromic management. Sex Transm Dis 2003; 30: 241–245.
  • Risbud A, Chan-Tack K, Gadkari D, Gangakhedkar RR, Shepherd ME, Bollinger R, et al. The aetiology of genital ulcer disease by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and relationship to HIV infection among patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Pune, India. Sex Transm Dis 1999; 26: 55–62.
  • World Health Organization (WHO). Regional office of Europe. Syphilis. Total. Incidence rate per 100,000 population, for 1998–2008. Sexually transmitted infections (STI). CISID. Available from:
  • Langenberg AG, Corey L, Ashley RL, Leong WP, Straus SE. A prospective study of new infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2. Chiron HSV Vaccine Study Group. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 1432–1438.
  • Wald A, Link K. Risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection in herpes simplex virus type 2-seropositive persons: a meta-analysis. J Infect Dis 2002; 185: 45–52.
  • Domeika M, Bashmakova M, Savicheva A, Kolomiec N, Sokolovskiy E, Hallén A, et al. Guidelines for the laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes in Eastern European Countries. Euro Surveill 2010; 15. pii: 19703.
  • Related articles

    There are no related articles.

    Share with your friends



    Full text



    There is no supplementary for this article.

    Print information

    Volume 91, Issue 3

    DOI: 10.2340/00015555-1033

    Pages: 333-336

    View at PubMed