Modifiable Risk-factors for Keratinocyte Cancers in Australia: A Case-control Study
Lina Maria Serna-Higuita, Simone L. Harrison, Petra Buttner, Margaret Glasby, Beverly A. Raasch, Angelika Iftner, Claus Garbe, Peter Martus, Thomas Iftner
Keratinocyte cancer is the most common malignancy in Caucasians. The aim of this study was to investigate risk-factors responsible for development of keratinocyte cancer in Australia. A case-control study was conducted, including 112 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 95 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 122 controls. Freckling during adolescence (SCC: odds ratio (OR) 1.04, p < 0.01; BCC: OR 1.05, p < 0.01), propensity to sunburn (SCC: OR 2.75, p = 0.01, BCC: OR 2.68 p = 0.01) and high cumulative sun-exposure (SCC: OR 2.43, p = 0.04; BCC: OR 2.36 p = 0.04) were independent risk-factors for both SCC and BCC. This study provides further evidence that a sun-sensitive phenotype and excessive sun-exposure during adulthood contribute to the risk of developing keratinocyte cancer. Wearing a hat, long-sleeved shirts, and sunscreen did not significantly reduce the risk of keratinocyte cancer in this study.
This study examined the complex interplay between environmental and host risk-factors for keratinocyte cancer. The results show that increasing age, lower academic qualifications, freckling during adolescence, solar lentiginous, propensity to sunburn and high-cumulative sun-exposure increase the risk of keratinocyte cancer.