Matrix Metalloproteinase-19 is Expressed by Keratinocytes in Psoriasis
SARI SUOMELA, ARJA-LEENA KARINIEMI, ULLA IMPOLA, SEIJA-LIISA KARVONEN, ERNA SNELLMAN, TUTTA UURASMAA, JUHA PELTONEN, ULPU SAARIALHO-KERE
Keratinocyte hyperproliferation, inflammatory infiltrates, neoangiogenesis and alterations in cytokine levels are hallmarks of psoriatic skin. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with the remodeling of the extracellular matrix during inflammation, neovascularization, and malignant transformation. We have previously shown that particularly MMP-12 is abundantly expressed by macrophages and MMP-9 in macrophages and neutrophils of psoriatic lesions. In this work the expression of two novel metalloproteinases, MMP-19 and MMP-28, was investigated in psoriatic lesional and non-lesional skin. MMP-19 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry in 28/29 samples in keratinocytes in the same regions as Ki67 (marker of proliferating keratinocytes) and p63 (marker of keratinocyte stem cells). Immunosignaling was also seen in endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Furthermore, MMP-19 mRNA was upregulated in psoriatic keratinocytes and skin as assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. In lichen planus and lichenoid chronic dermatitis, MMP-19 staining was found in keratinocytes in areas where the basement membrane was abnormal. MMP-28 was not detected in psoriatic or non-lesional skin. Our results suggest that keratinocytes as well as the previously reported cell types (smooth muscle, endothelial and macrophages) can express MMP-19 in psoriasis and lichen planus. Upregulation of MMP-19 in keratinocytes may be influenced by changes in the architecture of the basement membrane zone.