Content » Vol 93, Issue 3

Clinical Report

Cutaneous Myeloid Sarcoma: Natural History and Biology of an Uncommon Manifestation of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

M. Yadira Hurley, Grant K. Ghahramani , Stephanie Frisch, Eric S. Armbrecht , Anne C. Lind, TuDung T. Nguyen, Anjum Hassan, Friederike H. Kreisel, John L. Frater
DOI: 10.2340/00015555-1458

Abstract

We conducted a retrospective study of patients with cutaneous myeloid sarcoma, from 2 tertiary care institutions. Eighty-three patients presented, with a mean age of 52 years. Diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma in the skin was difficult due to the low frequency of myeloperoxidase and/or CD34+ cases (56% and 19% of tested cases, respectively). Seventy-one of the 83 patients (86%) had ≥ 1 bone marrow biopsy. Twenty-eight (39%) had acute myeloid leukemia with monocytic differentiation. Twenty-three had other de novo acute myeloid leukemia subtypes. Thirteen patients had other myeloid neoplasms, of which 4 ultimately progressed to an acute myeloid leukemia. Seven had no bone marrow malignancy. Ninety-eight percent of the patients received chemotherapy, and approximately 89% died of causes related to their disease. Cutaneous myeloid sarcoma in most cases represents an aggressive manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia. Diagnosis can be challenging due to lack of myeloblast-associated antigen expression in many cases, and difficulty in distinguishing monocyte-lineage blasts from neoplastic and non-neoplastic mature monocytes.

Significance

Supplementary content

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