Malignant Melanoma Arising in Patients with a Large Congenital Melanocytic Naevus: Retrospective Study of 10 Cases with Cytogenetic Analysis
Caroline Lacoste, Marie-Françoise Avril, Annonciade Frassati-Biaggi, Nicolas Dupin, Bertrand Chrétien-Marquet, Emmanuel Mahé, Christine Bodemer, Béatrice Vergier, Arnaud de la Fouchardière, Sylvie Fraitag
Large congenital melanocytic naevi (LCMN) represent the main risk factor for development of melanoma in childhood. This retrospective study of 10 cases of melanoma in patients with LCMN used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) (6 cases) to elucidate the clinical, histological, and cytogenetic characteristics of this rare disorder. Six melanomas were found within the LCMN, the others in lymph nodes, subcutis and brain. The LCMN was located on the trunk in 8 cases, with satellite naevi in 6 cases. Two distinct groups emerged: 5 melanomas that developed before the age of 10 years and the other after 20 years. The mortality rate was 60% and clearly correlated with clinical stage at diagnosis. Histological diagnosis was difficult in only 2 patients in whom neither immunohistochemistry nor FISH were helpful. Otherwise, CGH showed a high number of chromosomal aberrations leading to a formal diagnosis.