Risk Factors for Penile Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Population-based Register Study in Sweden, 2000-2012
Sinja Kristiansen, Åke Svensson, Linda Drevin, Ola Forslund, Christian Torbrand, Carina Bjartling
Studies on risk factors for penile intraepithelial neoplasia have been small in size, have not distinguished penile intraepithelial neoplasia from invasive cancer, and have relied on self-reported information. This study investigated risk factors for penile intraepithelial neoplasia in a cohort of 580 penile intraepithelial neoplasia cases and 3,436 controls using information from 7 Swedish registers. Cases with penile intraepithelial neoplasia had increased odds ratios (ORs) for inflammatory skin diseases (14.7, 95% CI 6.5–33.4) including lichen planus (12.0, 95% CI 3.0–48.0), indicating lichen planus to be an important risk factor. Increased ORs were also observed for diseases of the prepuce (4.0, 95% CI 2.2–7.4), immunosuppressive drugs (5.0, 95% CI 2.5–9.8), penile surgical procedures (4.8, 95% CI 2.2–10.8), balanitis (9.2, 95% CI 5.0–16.8), genital warts (9.9, 95% CI 4.3−22.7) and organ transplantation (7.0, 95% CI 2.4–20.8). This study demonstrates important risk factors for penile intraepithelial neoplasia, providing knowledge that can help prevent the development of penile cancer.
Non-invasive penile cancer is a precursor to invasive penile cancer. Studies on risk factors have been small in size and have relied on self-reported information. This study looked at risk factors for non-invasive penile cancer in 580 men and 3,436 cancer-free controls in Swedish medical registers. It found that inflammatory skin diseases, diseases of the prepuce, taking immunosuppressive drugs, having had penile surgery, inflammation of the glans, genital warts and being organ transplanted all are risk factors for non-invasive penile cancer. Increased knowledge on risk factors for non-invasive penile cancer will help in the prevention of development of invasive penile cancer.