Decanulation of patients with severe respiratory muscle insufficiency: Efficacy of mechanical insufflation-exsufflation
John Robert Bach, Louis Ralph Saporito , Harsh Rakesh Shah , Diane Sinquee
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital B-403, UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, 150 Bergen St, Newark, NJ 07103, USA: E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Objective: Ventilator dependent patients with neuromuscular disorders and high level spinal cord injury have been extubated and decanulated to continuous noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilatory support after mechanical insufflation-exsufflation was used to achieve specific criteria for tube removal. The purpose of this study is to report changes in extent of need for ventilator use and in vital capacity related to mechanical insufflation-exsufflation used via tracheostomy tubes and post-decanulation via oronasal interfaces.
Methods: Upon presentation patients were placed on fiO2 21% and CO2 was normalized by adjusting ventilator settings as needed. The vital capacity (1st data point) and h/day of ventilator dependence were noted. Then mechanical insufflation-exsufflation was used via the tubes up to every 2 h
until ambient air oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) baseline remained ≥ 95% and other decanulation criteria were achieved. The vital capacity was re-measured (2nd data point) and the patient decanulated to continuous noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilatory support in ambient air as care providers used mechanical insufflation-exsufflation up to every 30 min to maintain SpO2 ≥ 95%. The vital capacity (3rd data point) and minimum hours/day of noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilatory support requirement during the next 3 weeks were recorded.
Results: The vital capacities of 61 tracheostomized ventilator users, 36 of whom were continuously dependent, increased significantly (p < 0.001) from presentation to immediately pre-decanulation and in the 3 weeks post-decanulation and all except one were successfully decanulated.
Conclusion: Many ventilator users can be decanulated in outpatient clinics to continuous noninvasive intermittent positive pressure ventilatory support with mechanical insufflation-exsufflation used to increase vital capacity, SpO2, and autonomous ability to breathe.
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