High Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus on Anal and Oral Samples from Men and Women with External Anogenital Warts: The HERCOLES Study
Carmen Lisboa, Irene Santo, Jacinta Azevedo, Luis Azevedo, Angela Pista, Camila Dias, Maria Joaõ Cunha
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is highly prevalent in the sexually active population. This study estimates the prevalence of HPV DNA in anal and oral samples from a cohort of men and women with incident anogenital warts. Anal and/or oral samples from 541 patients with anogenital warts were tested for 35 HPV genotypes using a PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assay. The overall prevalence of anal HPV and oral HPV DNA was 59.9% (n = 305/509; 95% confidence interval (CI) 55.6–64.1%) and 14.5% (n = 78/538; 95% CI 11.8–17.7%), respectively. Among patients with perianal warts, the anal HPV prevalence was 92.3 and the anal HPV DNA prevalence was 92.3% (95% CI 87.0–95.5%). Anal HPV DNA prevalence in patients with genital warts but perianal warts [AQ1] was 55.7% (95% CI 50.6–60.7%). Both anal and oral HPV infections were more common in men who have sex with men than in heterosexual men (90.4% versus 38.5% and 20.8% versus 11.8%, respectively). Anal high risk-HPV infection was more common in women (58.8%) and in men who have sex with men (67.7%). We found that anogenital warts represent a clinical marker for both anal and oral HPV infections, including anal high risk-HPV infections, particularly among women and men who have sex with men.